References and Resources for the Mormon Answers Section on DNA and the Book of Mormon?

This page is "Appendix 4, References Cited and Resources," supplementing the main Mormon Answers page on DNA and the Book of Mormon, and also Appendix 1, "What the Book of Mormon Actually Says," Appendix 2, "Understanding the Scientific Evidence," and Appendix 3, "Further Scientific Issues." This work is my responsibility and does not necessarily reflect official views of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Copyright © 2002-2012 by Jeff Lindsay.

Search JeffLindsay.com + my blogs

Table of Contents

Literature Cited To the index at the top

Adachi, J. and Hasegawa, M., "Improved Dating of the Human/Chimpanzee Separation in the Mitochondrial Dna Tree: Heterogeneity Among Amino Acid Sites," Journal of Molecular Evolution, 40(6): 622-628 (1995).

Adcock, G.J., Dennis, E.S., Easteal, S., Huntley, G.A., Jermiin, L.S., Peacock, W.J., and Thorne, A., "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences in Ancient Australians: Implications for Modern Human Origins," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98(2): 537-542 (January 16, 2001). (Available online.)

Allison, M.J., Hossaini, A.A., Castro, N., Munziga, J., and Pezzia, A., "ABO Blood Groups in Peruvian Mummies, I. An Evaluation of Techniques," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 44(1): 55-61 (1976), as cited by Guthrie (2000/2001).

Allison, M.J., Hossaini, A.A., Munziga, J., and Fung, R., "ABO Blood Groups in Peruvian Mummies, II. Results of Agglutination-inhibition Technique," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 49(1): 139-142 (1978).

Anderson, S., et al., Nature, 290: 457 - 465 (1981).

Arnaiz-Villena, A., et al., "The Origin of Amerindians and the Peopling of the Americas According to HLA Genes: Admixture with Asian and Pacific People," Current Genomics, 11(2): 103-14 (2010), as cited Perego, 2010.

Bailliet, G., et al., "Founder Mitochondrial Haplotypes in Amerindian Populations," American Journal of Human Genetics, 55(1): 27-33 (July 1994). (Also available as a PDF file.)

Barbujani, G. and Bertorelle, G., "Genetics and the Population History of Europe," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 98(1): 22-25 (January 2, 2001). (Available online.)

Behar, B.M., et al., "Multiple Origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y Chromosome Evidence for Both Near Eastern and European Ancestries," American Journal of Human Genetics, Vol. 73, No. 4 (Oct. 2003): 768-779.

Berrett, William E., and Hunter, Milton R., et al., A Guide to the Study of the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Department of Education of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 1938), p. 48, as cited by Smith, 1994, p. 267.

Bianchi, N.O., "Characterization of Ancestral and Derived Y-Chromosome Haplotypes of New World Native Populations," American Journal of Human Genetics, 63:1862-1871 (1998).

Bonatto, S.L. and Salzano, F.M., "Diversity and Age of the Four Major mtDNA Haplogroups, and their Implications for the Peopling of the New World", American Journal of Human Genetics, 61:1413-1423 (1997a).

Bonatto, S.L. and Salzano, F.M., "A Single and Early Migration for the Peopling of the Americas Supported by Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Data," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, USA, Vol. 94: 1866-1871 (1997b). (Available online.)

Bonne-Tamir, B., Johnson, M.J., Natali, A., Wallace, D.C., and Cavalli-Sforza L.L., "Human Mitochondrial DNA Types in Two Israeli Populations--A Comparative Study at the DNA Level," American Journal of Human Genetics, 38(3):341-351 (March 1986).

Brooks, Cassandra, "First Ancient Human Sequenced," www.the-scientist.com/blog/display/57140, Feb. 2010 (accessed Nov. 20, 2010).

Brown, M.D. et al., "mtDNA Haplogroup X: An Ancient Link Between Europe/Western Asia and North America?" American Journal of Human Genetics, 63(6): 1852-1861 (Dec. 1998).

Butler, J.M., "A Few Thoughts From a Believing DNA Scientist," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 12(1): 36-37 (Nov. 2003). (Available online in PDF or HTML formats.)

Calderón, L.G., Cabecitas Olmecas: origines de la primera civilización de América, Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz, Mexico: privately published (1977), as cited by Sorenson, 1998, p. 228.

Cann, R.L., Stoneking, M., and Wilson, A.C., "Mitochondrial DNA and Human Evolution," Nature, 325: 31-36 (1987).

Carvajal-Carmona, L.G., et al., "Strong Amerind/White Sex Bias and a Possible Sephardic Contribution among the Founders of a Population in Northwest Colombia," American Journal of Human Genetics, 67(5): 1287-1295 (Nov. 2000).

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Piazza, A., and Menozzi, P., The History and Geography of Human Genes, Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press (1994), as cited by Guthrie (2000/2001).

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., Genes, Peoples, and Languages, transl. Mark Seielstad, New York: North Point Press (2000).

Cavalli-Sforza, L.L., "Genes, Peoples, and Language," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 94: 7719-7724 (July 1997). (Available online.)

Chang, J., "Recent Common Ancestors of All Present-Day Individuals," Advances in Applied Probability, 31: 1002-1026 (1999), as cited by Olson (2002a, p. 246).

Crawford, Michael H., The Origins of Native Americans: Evidence from Anthropological GeneticsM, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998, as cited by Perego, 2010.

Davis, N.Y., The Zuni Enigma, New York: W.W. Norton (2000).

Dennis, C., "Error Reports Threaten to Unravel Databases of Mitochondrial DNA," Nature, 421: 773-774 (Feb. 20, 2003).

de Mahieu, Jacques, "Corpus des inscriptions ruiniques d'Amerique du Sud," Kadath 68, Brussels, 1988, pp. 11-42, cited by Sorenson, 1993, p. 21.

Denver, D. R., Morris, K., Lynch, M., Vassilieva, L.L., and Thomas, W.K., "High Direct Estimate of the Mutation Rate in the Mitochondrial Genome of Caenorhabditis elegans," Science, 289: 2342-2344 (29 Sept. 2000).

Derenko, M.V., et al., "The Presence of Mitochondrial Haplogroup X in Altaians from South Siberia," American Journal of Human Genetics, 69(1): 237-241 (July 2001).

Dillehay, T.D., "Paleoanthropology: Tracking the First Americans," Nature, 425: 23-24 (Sept. 4, 2003).

Dorit, R.L., Akashi, H., and Gilbert, W., "Absence of Polymorphism at the ZFY Locus on the Human Y Chromosome," Science, 268: 1183-1185 (May 26, 1995).

Elias, J.J., "The Genetics of Modern Assyrians and their Relationship to Other People of the Middle East," http://www.atour.com/health/docs/20000720a.html, 2000, accessed Oct. 31, 2012. (Dr. Elias is an emeritus professor from the University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco.)

Elson, J.L. et al., "Analysis of European mtDNAs for Recombination," American Journal of Human Genetics, 68(1): 145-153 (Jan. 2001).

Eyre-Walker, A. and Keightley, P.D., "High Genomic Deleterious Mutation Rates in Hominids," Nature, 397: 344-347 (Jan. 28, 1999).

Finnila, S., Lehtonen, M.S., and Majamaa, K., "Phylogenetic Network for European mtDNA," American Journal of Human Genetics, 68: 1475-1481 (2001).

Forster, P., Hardin, R., Torroni, A., and Bandelt, H.-J., "Origin and Evolution of Native American mtDNA Variation: A Reappraisal," American Journal of Human Genetics, 59: 935-954 (1996).

Forster, P.M., Annals of Human Genetics, 67: 2-4 (2003), as cited by Dennis, 2003.

Gardner, B.A., "The Other Stuff: Reading the Book of Mormon for Cultural Information," FARMS Review of Books, 13(2): 21-56 (2001).

Gardner, B.A., "A Social History of the Early Nephites," article at FAIRLDS.org, 2003.

Gee, H., "Neanderthal DNA Confirms Distinct History," Nature Science Update at Nature.com, March 29, 2000.

Gibbons, A., "Calibrating the Mitochondrial Clock," Science, 279(5347): 28-29 (January 2, 1998).

Gilbert, M.T.P., Willerslev, E., Hansen, A.J., Barnes, I., Rudleck, L., Lynnerup, N., and Cooper, A., "Distribution Patterns of Postmortem Damage in Human Mitochondrial DNA," American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:32-47 (2003).

Gissi, C., Reyes, A., Pesole, G., and Saccone, C., "Lineage-Specific Evolutionary Rate in Mammalian mtDNA," Molecular Biology and Evolution, 17(7): 1022-1031 (2000).

González-Oliver, A., et al., "Founding Amerindian Mitochondrial DNA Lineages in Ancient Maya from Xcaret, Quintana Roo," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, Vol. 116: 230-235 (2001), as cited by McClellan (2003). (Abstract available online.)

Green, L.D., "mtDNA Affinities of the Peoples of North-Central Mexico," American Journal of Human Genetics, 66: 989-998 (2000).

Greenberg, J.H. et al., "The Settlement of the Americas: A Comparison of the Linguistic, Dental, and Genetic Evidence," Current Anthropology, 27(5): 477-497 (Dec. 1986).

Guthrie, James L., "Human Lymphocyte Antigens: Apparent Afro-Asiatic, Southern Asian, and European HLAs in Indigenous American Populations," Pre-Columbiana, Vol. 2, Nos. 2 and 3, Dec. 2000/June 2001, pp. 90-163.

Hamblin, William J., "Basic Methodological Problems with the Anti-Mormon Approach to the Geography and Archaeology of the Book of Mormon," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, vol. 2, no.1 (Spring 1993), pp. 161-197.

Hammer, M.F., et al., "The Geographic Distribution of Human Y Chromosome Variation," Genetics, 145: 787-805 (1997).

Hammer, M.F., et al., "Jewish and Middle Eastern Non-Jewish Populations Share a Common Pool of Y-Chromosome Biallelic Haplotypes," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 97(12): 6769-74 (June 6, 2000). (Available online.)

Hauswirth, W.W., Dickel, C.D., Rowold, D.J., and Hauswirth, M.A., "Inter- and Intrapopulation Studies of Ancient Humans," Experientia, 50:585-591 (1994), as cited by Malhi and Smith (2002).

Helgason, A. et al., "A Populationwide Coalescent Analysis of Icelandic Matrilineal and Patrilineal Genealogies: Evidence for a Faster Evolutionary Rate of mtDNA Lineages than Y Chromosomes," American Journal of Human Genetics, 72(6):1370-88 (2003), as cited by Perego, 2010.

Highfield, R., "Europeans Colonised America in 28,000 BC," The Electronic Telegraph, Feb. 19, 2000. (Available online.)

Holmes, E.C. et al., "Stochastic Models of Molecular Evolution and the Estimation of Phylogeny and Rates of Nucleotide Substitution in the Hominoid Primates," Journal of Human Evolution, 18(8): 775-794 (1989).

Horikawa, Y. et al., "Genetic Variation in the Gene Encoding Calpain-10 Is Associated with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus," Nature Genetics, Vol. 26, No. 2, Oct. 2000, pp. 163-175.

Howell, N., Kubacka, I., and Mackey, D.A., "How Rapidly Does the Human Mitochondrial Genome Evolve?" American Journal of Human Genetics, 59(3):501-509 (Sept. 1996).

Huoponen, K., Torroni, A., Wickman, P.R., Sellitto, D., Gurley, D.S., Scozzari, R., and Wallace, D.C., "Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosome-specific Polymorphisms in the Seminole of South Florida," European Journal of Human Genetics, 5:25-34 (1997), as cited by Malhi et al., 2000.

Ivanov, P.L., Wadhams, M.J., Roby, R.K., Holland, M.M., Weedn, V.W., Parsons, T.J., "Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Heteroplasmy in the Grand Duke of Russia Georgij Romanov Establishes the Authenticity of the Remains of Tsar Nicholas II," Nature Genetics, 12:417-20 (April 1996).

Ivins, Anthony W., LDS Conference Report, April 1929, p. 15.

Jantz, R.L., and Owsley, D.W., "Variation Among Early North American Crania," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 114: 146-155 (2001).

Jett, Stephen C., "Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Contacts: The Present State of the Evidence," presented at the NEARA (New England Antiquities Research Association) ABC Plus Ten Conference, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2002.

Jin, L., et al., American Journal of Human Genetics, 55 (Suppl.): 39 (abstract) (1994), as cited by Underhill et al., 1996.

Johnson, Lane, "Who and Where Are the Lamanites?" Ensign, Dec. 1975, p. 15. (Available online.)

Jones, Peter N., "American Indian mtDNA and Y Chromosome Genetic Data: A Comprehensive Report of their Use in Migration and Other Anthropological Studies," International Institute for Indigenous Resource Management, Denver, Colorado, July 31, 2004.

Kahn, P., and Gibbons, A., "DNA From an Extinct Human," Science, 277: 176-178 (1997).

Karafet, T.M., et al., "Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y-Chromosome Founder Haplotypes," American Journal of Human Genetics, 64(3): 817-831 (March 1999).

Kayser, M. et al., International Journal of Legal Medicine, 110: 125-133 (1997), as cited by Carvajal-Carmona et al. (2000).

Kelly, David H., "Proto-Tifnagh and Proto-Ogham in the Americas," Review of Archaeology, 2:10 (Spring 1990), as cited by Roper, 1992, p. 213.

Kolman, C.J., Sambuughin, N., and Bermingham, E., "Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Mongolian Populations and Implications for the Origin of New World Founders," Genetics, 142: 1321-34 (1996), as cited by McClellan (2003).

Kolman, C.J., and Tuross, N., "Ancient DNA Analysis of Human Populations," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 111: 5-23 (2000).

Krings, M., Stone, A., Schmitz, R.W., Krainitzki, H., Stoneking, M., and Svante Pääbo, S., "Neandertal DNA Sequences and the Origin of Modern Humans," Cell, 90: 19-30 (1997).

Malhi, R.S., et al., "The Structure of Diversity within New World Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups: Implications for the Prehistory of North America," American Journal of Human Genetics, 70(4): 905-919 (April 2002).

Malhi, R.S., and Smith, D.G., "Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 119:84-86 (2002).

McClellan, David A., "Detecting Lehi's Genetic Signature: Possible, Probable, or Not?," FARMS Review of Books, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 35-90, 2003. (Available online for FARMS subscribers.)

McCulloch, J. Huston, "The Bat Creek Inscription: Did Judean Refugees Escape to Tennessee?" Biblical Archaeology Review, July/August 1993, pp. 46-53, 82.

McGlone, W.R. et al., Ancient American Inscriptions: Plow Marks or History?, Long Hill, Mass.: Early Sites Research Society, 1993, as cited by Sorenson, 1993, p. 21.

Meldrum, D.J., and Stephens, T.D., "Who Are the Children of Lehi?," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 12(1): 38-51 (Nov. 2003). (Available online in PDF or HTML formats.)

Merriwether D.A., and Ferrell, R.E., "The Four Founding Lineage Hypothesis for the New World: A Critical Reevaluation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol., 5:241-246 (1996), as cited by Bonatto and Salzano (1997a). (Abstract available online.)

Merriwether, D.A., Rothhammer, F., and Ferrell, R.E., "Distribution of the Four Founding Lineage Haplotypes in Native Americans Suggests a Single Wave of Migration for the New World," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 98: 411-430 (1995), as cited by Bonatto and Salzano (1997a).

Monsalve, M.V., et al., "Evidence of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in South American Aboriginals," Annals of Human Genetics, 58(Pt 3): 265-73 (July 1994).

Monsalve, M.V., "Mitochondrial DNA in Ancient Amerindians," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103:423-425 (1997).

Morell, V., "Genes May Link Ancient Eurasians, Native Americans," Science, 280: 520 (April 24, 1998).

Mourant, A.E., Kopec, A., and Domaniewska-Sobczac, K., The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups and Other Polymorphisms, London: Oxford University Press, 1976, as cited by Guthrie (2000/2001).

Mourant, A.E., Blood Relations: Blood Groups and Anthropology, New York: Oxford Press (1983).

Murphy, T., "Lamanite Genesis, Genealogy, and Genetics," in American Apocrypha, edited by Dan Vogel and Brent L. Metcalfe, Salt Lake City: Signature Books (2001).

Nachman, M.W., and Crowell, S.L., "Estimate of the Mutation Rate per Nucleotide in Humans," Genetics, 156: 297-304 (Sept. 2000).

Neel, J.V., Biggar, R.J., and Sukernik, R.I., "Virologic and Genetic Studies Relate Amerindian Origins to the Indigenous People of the Mongolia/Manchuria/Southeastern Siberia Region," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91:10737-10741 (1994).

Nei, M., and Glazko, G.V., "Estimation of Divergence Times for a Few Mammalian and Several Primate Species," Journal of Heredity, 93: 157-164 (May/June 2002).

Neves, W.A., and Pucciarelli, H.M., "Morphological Affinities of the First Americans: An Exploratory Study Based on Early South American Human Remains," Journal of Human Evolution, 21: 261-273 (1991), as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Neves, W.A., Meyer, D., and Pucciarelli, H.M., "Early Skeletal Remains and the Peopling of the Americas," Review of Anthropology, 39: 121-139 (1996), as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Nibley, Hugh W., Since Cumorah, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book (1967a).

Nibley, Hugh W., "The Mormon View of the Book of Mormon," Concilium: An International Review of Theology, Vol. 10 (December 1967b), pp. 82-83, according to the republished article in The Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Volume 19, No. 1, 2010, pp. 78-80, available online at the MaxwellInstitute.org. Also published in Concilium: Theology in the Age of Renewal 30 (1968): 170-73. It was reprinted in Nibley on the Timely and the Timeless (Salt Lake City: Bookcraft, 1978), 149-53, under the title "The Book of Mormon: A Minimal Statement."

Nibley, Hugh W, Part 10 of "The World of the Jaredites," Improvement Era 55 (June 1952): 398-99, 462-64. See footnote 11 in the online text of Chapter 6, "A Permanent Heritage," in The World of the Jaredites.

Nibley, Hugh W., The World of the Jaredites, originally published 1952, in The Collected Works of Hugh Nibley, Vol. 5, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book (1988).

Olson, S., Mapping Human History: Discovering the Past Through Our Genes, Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 2002a.

Olson, S., "The Royal We," Atlantic Monthly, 289(5): 62-64 (May 2002b).

O'Rourke, D.H., M.G. Hayes, and S.W. Carlyle, "Ancient DNA Studies in Physical Anthropology," Annual Rev. Anthropol., 29: 217-242 (2000).

Ostler, Blake, "Assessing the Logical Structure of DNA Arguments against the Book of Mormon," Sunstone, Dec. 2004, pp. 70-72.

Ostler, Blake, "DNA Strands in the Book of Mormon," Sunstone, May 2005, pp. 63-71.

Ovchinnikov, I. V., Gotherstrom, A., Romanova, G. P., Kharitonov, V. M., Liden, K., Goodwin, W., "Molecular Analysis of Neanderthal DNA from the Northern Caucasus," Nature, 404: 490-493 (2000). (Available online.)

Pääbo, S., Gifford, J.A., and Wilson, A.C., "Mitochondrial DNA Sequences from a 7000-year Old Brain," Nucleic Acids Research, 16: 9775-9787 (1988), as cited by Schurr, 1990. (Paabo)

Pääbo, S., "The Y Chromosome and the Origin of All of Us (Men)," Science, 268: 1141-1142 (May 26, 1995).(Paabo)

Parr, R.L., S.W. Carlyle, and D.H. O'Rourke, "Ancient DNA Analysis of Fremont Amerindians of the Great Salt Lake Wetlands," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 99: 507-518 (1996).

Parsons, T.J. et al., "A High Observed Substitution Rate in the Human Mitochondrial DNA Control Region," Nature Genetics, 15:363-367 (April 1997).

Perego, Ugo A., "Current Biology, SMGF, and Lamanites," www.fairblog.org/2009/02/06/current-biology-smgf-and-lamanites (accessed Nov. 20, 2010), Feb. 6, 2009.

Perego, Ugo A., "The Book of Mormon and the Origin of Native Americans from a Maternally Inherited DNA Standpoint," FARMS Review, 22(1): 191-227 (2010).

Pitman, S., "DNA Mutation Rates & Evolution," http://naturalselection.0catch.com/Files/dnamutationrates.html, Aug. 2003.

Pollack, R., "The Fallacy of Biological Judaism," The Forward, March 7, 2003. (Available online.)

Powell, J.F., and Rose, J.C., "Report on the Osteological Assessment of the 'Kennewick Man' Skeleton (CENWW97.Kennewick)," in "Report on the Non-destructive Examination, Description, and Analysis of the Human Remains from Columbia Park, Kennewick, Washington", Washington, D.C.: National Park Service (Oct. 1999), at http:http://www.nps.gov/archeology/kennewick/powell_rose.htm.

Rana, F., Deem, R. and Ross, H., "A Scientific and Biblical Response To: 'Up from the Apes. Remarkable New Evidence Is Filling in the Story of How We Became Human.' Time, August 23, 1999," at originally at http://reasons.org/resources/apologetics/humanevolution.html, 1999.

Rasmussen, M. et al., "Ancient human genome sequence of an extinct Palaeo-Eskimo," Nature, 463: 757-62 (2010), as cited by Perego, 2010.

Reidla, M., et al., "Origin and Diffusion of mtDNA Haplogroup X," American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:1178-1190 (Nov. 2003), available online at ScienceDirect.com.

Riberos-dos-Santos, A.K.C., et al., "Heterogeneity of Mitochondrial DNA Haplotypes in Pre-Columbian Natives of the Amazon Region," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 101:29-37 (1996), as cited by Salzano (2002). Abstract available online.

Riberos-dos-Santos, A.K.C., et al., Reply to Monsalve on "Mitochondrial DNA in Ancient Amerindians," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 103:423-425 (1997), at 103:571 (1997).

Richards, M., Corte-Real, H., Forster, P., Macaulay, V., Wilkinson-Herbots, H., Demaine, A., Papiha, S., Hedges, R., Bandelt, H.-J., Sykes, B., "Paleolithic and Neolithic Lineages in the European Mitochondrial Gene Pool," American Journal of Human Genetics, 59:185-203 (1996), as cited by Kolman and Tuross (2000).

Richards, M. and Macaulay, V., "The Mitochondrial Gene Tree Comes of Age," American Journal of Human Genetics, 68(6): 1315-1320 (June 2001).

Richardson, Jim and Richardson, Allen, "Verified at Last: The Strange and Terrible Story of the Kensington Runestone," Ripsaw News, 3:31 (Aug. 15, 2001). (Archived at Archive.org.)

Rickards, O., Martinez-Labarga, C., Lum, J.K., De Stefano, G.F., and Cann, R.L., "mtDNA History of the Cayapa Amerinds of Ecuador: Detection of Additional Founding Lineages for the Native American Populations," American Journal of Human Genetics 65(2): 519-30 (1999). (Also available online in PDF form.)

Riley, Carroll, et al., eds., Man across the Sea: Problems of Pre-Columbian Contacts, Austin: University of Texas Press (1971).

Rohde, D.L.T. , Olson, S., and Chang, J.T., "Modelling the Recent Common Ancestry of All Living Humans," Nature, 431(7008): 562 (Sept. 30, 2004).

Roper, Matthew, "Mormonism: Shadow or Reality?," Review of Books on the Book of Mormon, 4(1): 169-215 (1992).

Roper, Matthew, "Unanswered Mormon Scholars," FARMS Review of Books, 9(1): 87-145 (1997).

Roper, Matthew, "Nephi's Neighbors: Book of Mormon Peoples and Pre-Columbian Populations," FARMS Review of Books, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2003, pp. 91-128.

Ruiz-Linares, A., et al., "Microsatellites Provide Evidence for Y chromosome Diversity among the Founders of the New World," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 96(11): 6312-6317 (May 25, 1999). (Available online.)

Sakoyama, Y. et al., "Nucleotide Sequences of Immunoglobulin Epsilon Genes of Chimpanzee and Orangutan: DNA Molecular Clock and Hominoid Evolution," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 84(4): 1080-1084 (1987).

Salzano, F.M., "Molecular Variability in Amerindians: Widespread but Uneven Information," Anais de Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 74(2): 223-263 (2002). (Available online.)

Santos, F.R., et al., "The Central Siberian Origin for Native American Y Chromosomes," American Journal of Human Genetics, 64(2): 619-628 (Feb. 1999).

Santos, S.E. et al., "Multiple Founder Haplotypes of Mitochondrial DNA in Amerindians Revealed by RFLP and Sequencing," Annals of Human Genetics, 60(Pt 4): 305-319 (July 1996).

Schurr, T.G. et al., "Amerindian Mitochondrial DNAs Have Rare Asian Mutations at High Frequencies, Suggesting They Derived from Four Primary Maternal Lineages," American Journal of Human Genetics, 46: 613-623 (1990).

Schurr, Theodore G., "Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World," American Scientist, 88(3): 246-253 (May-June 2000).

Schwartz, M. and Vissing, J., "Paternal Inheritance of Mitochondrial DNA," New England Journal of Medicine, 347(8): 576-580 (Aug. 22, 2002).

Sjodahl, Janne M., An Introduction to the Study of the Book of Mormon (Salt Lake City: Deseret News Press, 1927), p. 435, as cited by Smith, 1994, p. 267.

Skorecki, K., Selig, S., and Blazer, S., "Y Chromosome of Jewish Priests," Nature, 385: 32 (Jan. 2, 1997).

Smith, D.G., Malhi, R.S., Eshleman, J., Lorenz, J.G., Kaestle, F.A., "Distribution of mtDNA Haplogroup X among Native North Americans," American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 110: 271-284 (1999).

Smith, James E., "Nephi's Descendants? Historical Demography and the Book of Mormon," Review of Books on the Book of Mormon, Vol. 6, No. 1, 1994, pp. 255-296. (Available online in HTML or PDF formats.)

Sorenson, John L., An Ancient American Setting for the Book of Mormon, Salt Lake City: Deseret Book (1985).

Sorenson, John L., "When Lehi's Party Arrived in the Land, Did They Find Others There?" J. Book of Mormon Studies, 1(1): 1-34 (Spring 1992).

Sorenson, John L., "A New Evaluation of the Smithsonian Institution 'Statement Regarding the Book of Mormon,'" FARMS Paper SOR-93, Provo, Utah: Foundation for Ancient Research and Mormon Studies, 1993.

Sorenson, John L., and Raish, Martin H., Pre-Columbian Contact with the Americas across the Oceans, Provo, Utah: Research Press, 2 vols. (1990).

Sorenson, John L., Images of Ancient America: Visualizing Book of Mormon Life, Provo, Utah: Research Press (1998).

Sorenson, John L. and Roper, M., "Before DNA," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 12(1): 6-23 (Nov. 2003). (Available online in PDF or HTML formats.)

Southerton, Simon, "Answers to Apologetic Claims about DNA and the Book of Mormon," www.irr.org/MIT/southerton-response.html (accessed Nov. 20, 2010).

Spencer, M. and Rowe, C.J., "Authenticity of Ancient-DNA Results: A Statistical Approach," American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(2): 240-250 (Aug. 2004).

Spurdle, A. B. and Jenkins, T., "The Origins of the Lemba 'Black Jews' of Southern Africa: Evidence from p12F2 and Other Y-Chromosome Markers," American Journal of Human Genetics, 59: 1126-1133 (1996).

Stacey, A., Sheffield, N.C., and Crandall, K.A., "Calculating Eexpected DNA Remnants from Ancient Founding Events in Human Population Genetics," BMC Genet., 9:66 (17 Oct. 2008).

Steede, N., "Comalcalco: An Early Classic Maya Site," in Across Before Columbus?, ed. by Donald Y. Gilmore and Linda S. McElroy, New England Antiquities Research Association (NEARA), 1998.

Steele, D.G., and Powell, J.F., "The Peopling of the Americas: Paleobiological Evidence," Human Biology, 64:303-336 (1992), as cited by Guthrie (2000/2001).

Steele, D.G., and Powell, J.F., "Paleobiological Evidence of the Peopling of the Americas: A Morphometric View," in Method and Theory for Investigating the Peopling of the Americas, ed. by R. Bonnichsen and D.G. Steele (Corvallis, Oregon: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, 1994), pp. 141-164, as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Steele, D.G., and Powell, J.F., "Peopling of the Americas: A Historical and Comparative Perspective," in Who Were the First Americans?, ed. by R. Bonnichsen (Corvallis, Oregon: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, 1999), pp. 97-126, as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Stewart, D., "DNA and the Book of Mormon," http://limhi.com/bookofmormondna.html (now archived), May 30, 2004.

Stone, Anne C. and Stoneking, Mark, "mtDNA Analysis of a Prehistoric Oneota Population: Implications for the Peopling of the New World," American Journal of Human Genetics, 62: 1153-1170 (1998).

Strauss, E., "Can Mitochondrial Clocks Keep Time?," Science, 283: 1435-1438 (March 5, 1999).

Sykes, B., The Seven Daughters of Eve, New York: W.W. Norton and Comp., 2001.

Stubbs, B., "Numerical Dynamics of Population Mixing," FARMS Review of Books, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2003, pp. 165-182.

Tarazona-Santos, E., et al., "Genetic Differentiation in South Amerindians Is Related to Environmental and Cultural Diversity: Evidence from the Y Chromosome," American Journal of Human Genetics, 68(6): 1485-1496 (2001).

Thomas, M.G., et al., "Origins of Old Testament Priests," Nature, 394: 138-140 (1998).

Thomas, M.G., et al., "Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba - the 'Black Jews of Southern Africa,'" American Journal of Human Genetics, 66:674-686 (2000).

Thomson, R., Pritchard, J.K., Shen, P., Oefner, P.J., and Feldman, M.W., "Recent Common Ancestry of Human Y chromosomes: Evidence from DNA Sequence Data," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 97(13): 7360-7365 (June 20, 2000). (Available online.)

Torroni, A., et al., "Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations," Genetics, 130: 153-162 (Jan. 1992).

Torroni, A., et al., "The Common, Near-Eastern Origin of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews Supported by Y-Chromosome Similarity," Annals of Human Genetics, 57: 55 - 64 (1993a).

Torroni, A., et al. "Asian Affinities and Continental Radiation of the Four Founding Native American mtDNAs," American Journal of Human Genetics, 53: 563-590 (1993b).

Torroni, A., et al. "mtDNA Variation of Aboriginal Siberians Reveals Distinct Genetic Affinities with Native Americans," American Journal of Human Genetics, 53: 591-608 (1993c).

Torroni, A., Neel, J.V., Barrantes, R., Schurr, T.G., Wallace, D.C., "Mitochondrial DNA "Clock" for the Amerinds and Its Implications for Timing Their Entry into North America," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91: 1158-1162 (1994). (Available online.)

Torroni, A., and Wallace, D.C., "mtDNA Haplogroups in Native Americans," American Journal of Human Genetics, 56: 1234-1236 (1995).

Underhill, P.A., Jin, L., Zemans, R., Oefner, P.J., and Cavilli-Sforza, L.L., "A Pre-Columbian Y Chromosome-specific Transition and Its Implications for Human Evolutionary History," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 93: 196-200 (Jan. 1996).

von Wuthenau, A., Unexpected Faces in Ancient America, 1500 B.C. - 1500 A.D., New York: Crown (1975).

Wachter, Kenneth, "Ancestors at the Norman Conquest," Genealogical Demography, ed. Bennet Dyke and Warren Morrill, New York: Academic Press (1980), as cited by Olson (2002a, p. 246).

Ward, R.H., et al., "Extensive Mitochondrial Diversity within a Single Amerindian Tribe," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 88: 8720-8724 (Oct. 1991).

Waters, Michael R. and Stafford, Thomas W., Jr., "redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for the Peopling of the Americas," Science, 315: 1122-1126 (Feb. 23, 2007).

Weber, J.L. and Wong, C., "Mutation of Human Short Tandem Repeats," Human Molecular Genetics, 2(8): 1123-1128 (1993). (Abstract available online.)

Whiting, M.F., "DNA and the Book of Mormon: A Phylogenetic Perspective," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 12(1): 24-35 (Nov. 2003).

Woodmorappe, J., "Upsetting Pet Theories: Surprising New Evidence that Molecular Clocks Can Run Very Fast," http://www.rae.org/clocks.html, June 5, 1999, as viewed Nov. 3, 2003.

Other Resources and Links To the index at the top

Main page on DNA and the Book of Mormon

Appendix 1: What the Book of Mormon Says

Appendix 2: DNA Evidence

Appendix 3: Further Scientific Issues

2014 Statement from the Church on DNA and the Book of Mormon.

LDSFAQThe LDS FAQ Index

A Brief Review of Murphy and Southerton's "Galileo Event"--Kevin Barney responds to an article by Thomas Murphy and Simon Southerton, "Genetic Research a 'Galileo Event' for Mormons," Anthropology News, Vol. 44, No. 2 (February 2003): 20, a publication of the American Anthropological Association. Kevin's response is at FAIRLDS.org.

"Simon Says, But That Doesn't Make It So" - Blake Ostler's insightful response to Simon Southerton, published in Sunstone Magazine. The link is to a PDF document in which Ostler's response begins at page 4. Interestingly, Ostler shows that Southerton actually agrees with the primary response of LDS scientists on the DNA issue: the introduction of a small group of people into a populated hemisphere 2600 years ago is unlikely to have left a DNA fingerprint that we can readily detect today. The problem is that Southerton isn't attacking what the Book of Mormon actually says, but a popular way of interpreting of the Book of Mormon. He also provides valulable insights on the issue of intermarriage with local natives.

"'Great Surprise'—Native Americans Have West Eurasian Origins" from National Geographic's Daily News, Nov. 20, 2013. In related posts at Mormanity and The Nauvoo Times, I explain why Mormons should not get overly excited about this tentative report. However, it does represent an important surprise that weakens some of the attacks made against the Book of Mormon. There is simply no basis to claim that there is no genetic evidence linking Native Americans and the Middle East.

DNA and the Book of Mormon--Cooper Johnson's excellent article at FAIRLDS.org.

General questions about alleged problems in the Book of Mormon

My Book of Mormon Evidences Page

Intro to the Book of Mormon

Introduction to the LDS Church

FARMS Review of Books--great reviews of and responses to books about LDS scripture. Also see the FARMS news item from 2000, "Genetics Indicates That Polynesians Were Connected to Ancient America."

Genetic Ancestral Testing Cannot Deliver On Its Promise, Study Warns - good reminder from Science Daily.

American Journal of Human Genetics--great source of research involving human genetics and ancestry.

My LDS Links

DNA Mutation Rates & Evolution--an outstanding and carefully documented article on DNA mutation rates and the problem of using DNA as a molecular clock, written by Dr. Sean Pitman, Aug. 2003.

"The Problematic Role of DNA Testing in Unraveling Human History," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2 (2000): 66-74. This article discusses the limitations and benefits of DNA analysis, urging caution before leaping to errant conclusions based on early work with new methods.

"How African Are You? What Genealogical Testing Can't Tell You. - article at Slate.com by John Hawks reminding us of the limitations of DNA testing.

Genetic Markers Are Not a Valid Test of Native Identity by Brett Lee Shelton, J.D. and Jonathan Marks, Ph.D.. This essay points out the serious limitations of DNA testing in identifying tribal identity. I would suggest that some of the same factors that limit DNA tests to determine one's status as a Native American would also limit DNA tests in determining whether someone is Jewish or not. And it also points out that 5% of Native Americans believed to not have non-native DNA fall outside the major haplotypes (e.g., mtDNA haplotypes A, B, C, D, and X).

New evidence from the Baja peninsula - an article from Discovery.com about an important source of ancient Americans other than northern Asia - a fact that has been entirely missed in the supposedly "Asia only" DNA studies.

DNA and the Book of Mormon by David Stewart, M.D. - a new resource with excellent information on this complex topic.

Scientific Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, Sino-Platonic.org.

Tempest in a Tea Pot: DNA Studies and the Book of Mormon - Brant Gardner's article at FAIRLDS.org discusses of some of Tom Murphy's errors in interpreting scientific data.

A Brief History of the Limited Geographic View of the Book of Mormon by John Tvedtnes.

Joseph Smith and John Lloyd Stephens by Ted Dee Stoddard, a terrific article which shows the impact that a Mesoamerican explorer had on Joseph Smith's understanding of the Book of Mormon and its geography

Away from the Heartland: Joseph Smith, John Lloyd Stephens, and a Mesoamerican Setting for the Book of Mormon - post on my blog, Mormanity.

"Shalom and Hey, Y'all! Jewish-American Indian Chiefs in the Old Sout" - Word document from Donald N. Panther-Yates, Appalachian Quarterly 7/2 (June 2002) 80-89. Also see Donald's website, PanthersLodge.com. A little information about his author and historian is available in Wikipedia's article, "Donald Panther-Yates."

Russell Anderson's Response Page--responds to many attacks of anti-Mormon critics.

SHIELDS--dealing with LDS historical and intellectual issues, including good answers to some common anti-Mormon questions.

FAIR--The Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research, dedicated to providing an intelligent defense of the truth. Many serious and well written papers can be accessed at their site.

Mike Ash's Mormon Fortress--a rich site loaded with great material.

Pre-Columbian chickens in the Americas? The related peer-reviewed scientific article is also available online. Also see my related a post at Mormanity. While there is strong evidence for significant ancient contact between Polynesia and the Americas, DNA studies of Native Americans do not (yet) show evidence of such contact.

A Social History of the Early Nephites by Brant Gardner, available at FAIRLDS.org.

The Nephi Project--strong evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon from the Arabian Peninsula, documented in videos.

Stone Age Columbus--An interesting BBC report about the possibility of ancient Europeans travelling by boat to the Americas in the Stone Age. Suggests that the origins of the Americas may be more diverse than conventional thinking would allow.

LDS FAQ: Questions about Science and Mormon Doctrine - a 2004 essay by Jeff Lindsay that deals with general issues of science and Mormonism, as well as specifics such as evolution, the Flood, etc.

The Waters of the Flood by Hugh Ross, Ph.D. Dr. Ross, a faithful non-LDS Christian and a scientist, points out that scriptural language about the flood covering "all the earth" need not refer to the entire globe, and argues for a scope limited to Mesopotamia. While LDS writers and leaders have traditionally taken scriptural language about the flood at a purely literal level, a limited flood paradigm is much more easily reconciled with modern science.

DNA-related articles in the November 2003 issue of The Journal of Book of Mormon Studies:

Also see Hugh Hewitt Interviews Two LDS Scholars on the DNA and Book of Mormon Issue (Feb. 2006) - the transcript of an interesting radio interview with Dr. Daniel Peterson of BYU and Dr. John Butler, a project leader at the Human Identity DNA Technologies Group, Biotechnology Division for the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

Finally, don't overlook the most basic resource on this topic, The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ. It is available online at lds.org, or you can obtain a free copy at Mormon.org or just call 1-877-537-0003. After withstanding more than 170 years of hostile attacks, it is truer than ever, and vitally relevant for our day. Yes, the Book of Mormon is an authentic ancient record, a true book, and the word of God. But don't take my word for it: study it yourself, ponder it, apply any tests you like, and seek guidance from God to know for yourself if it is true.


Curator: Jeff Lindsay Contact:
Last Updated: Dec. 2, 2013
URL: "http://www.jefflindsay.com/LDSFAQ/dna4.html"