References and Resources for the Mormon Answers Section on DNA and the Book of Mormon?

This page is "Appendix 4, References Cited and Resources," supplementing the main Mormon Answers page on DNA and the Book of Mormon, and also Appendix 1, "What the Book of Mormon Actually Says," Appendix 2, "Understanding the Scientific Evidence," and Appendix 3, "Further Scientific Issues." This work is my responsibility and does not necessarily reflect official views of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Copyright © 2002-2012 by Jeff Lindsay.

Table of Contents

Literature Cited To the index at the top

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Steele, D.G., and Powell, J.F., "Paleobiological Evidence of the Peopling of the Americas: A Morphometric View," in Method and Theory for Investigating the Peopling of the Americas, ed. by R. Bonnichsen and D.G. Steele (Corvallis, Oregon: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, 1994), pp. 141-164, as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Steele, D.G., and Powell, J.F., "Peopling of the Americas: A Historical and Comparative Perspective," in Who Were the First Americans?, ed. by R. Bonnichsen (Corvallis, Oregon: Center for the Study of the First Americans, Oregon State University, 1999), pp. 97-126, as cited by Jantz and Owsley (2001).

Stewart, D., "DNA and the Book of Mormon," (now archived), May 30, 2004.

Stone, Anne C. and Stoneking, Mark, "mtDNA Analysis of a Prehistoric Oneota Population: Implications for the Peopling of the New World," American Journal of Human Genetics, 62: 1153-1170 (1998).

Strauss, E., "Can Mitochondrial Clocks Keep Time?," Science, 283: 1435-1438 (March 5, 1999).

Sykes, B., The Seven Daughters of Eve, New York: W.W. Norton and Comp., 2001.

Stubbs, B., "Numerical Dynamics of Population Mixing," FARMS Review of Books, Vol. 15, No. 2, 2003, pp. 165-182.

Tarazona-Santos, E., et al., "Genetic Differentiation in South Amerindians Is Related to Environmental and Cultural Diversity: Evidence from the Y Chromosome," American Journal of Human Genetics, 68(6): 1485-1496 (2001).

Thomas, M.G., et al., "Origins of Old Testament Priests," Nature, 394: 138-140 (1998).

Thomas, M.G., et al., "Y Chromosomes Traveling South: The Cohen Modal Haplotype and the Origins of the Lemba - the 'Black Jews of Southern Africa,'" American Journal of Human Genetics, 66:674-686 (2000).

Thomson, R., Pritchard, J.K., Shen, P., Oefner, P.J., and Feldman, M.W., "Recent Common Ancestry of Human Y chromosomes: Evidence from DNA Sequence Data," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 97(13): 7360-7365 (June 20, 2000). (Available online.)

Torroni, A., et al., "Native American Mitochondrial DNA Analysis Indicates That the Amerind and the Nadene Populations Were Founded by Two Independent Migrations," Genetics, 130: 153-162 (Jan. 1992).

Torroni, A., et al., "The Common, Near-Eastern Origin of Ashkenazi and Sephardic Jews Supported by Y-Chromosome Similarity," Annals of Human Genetics, 57: 55 - 64 (1993a).

Torroni, A., et al. "Asian Affinities and Continental Radiation of the Four Founding Native American mtDNAs," American Journal of Human Genetics, 53: 563-590 (1993b).

Torroni, A., et al. "mtDNA Variation of Aboriginal Siberians Reveals Distinct Genetic Affinities with Native Americans," American Journal of Human Genetics, 53: 591-608 (1993c).

Torroni, A., Neel, J.V., Barrantes, R., Schurr, T.G., Wallace, D.C., "Mitochondrial DNA "Clock" for the Amerinds and Its Implications for Timing Their Entry into North America," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 91: 1158-1162 (1994). (Available online.)

Torroni, A., and Wallace, D.C., "mtDNA Haplogroups in Native Americans," American Journal of Human Genetics, 56: 1234-1236 (1995).

Underhill, P.A., Jin, L., Zemans, R., Oefner, P.J., and Cavilli-Sforza, L.L., "A Pre-Columbian Y Chromosome-specific Transition and Its Implications for Human Evolutionary History," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 93: 196-200 (Jan. 1996).

von Wuthenau, A., Unexpected Faces in Ancient America, 1500 B.C. - 1500 A.D., New York: Crown (1975).

Wachter, Kenneth, "Ancestors at the Norman Conquest," Genealogical Demography, ed. Bennet Dyke and Warren Morrill, New York: Academic Press (1980), as cited by Olson (2002a, p. 246).

Ward, R.H., et al., "Extensive Mitochondrial Diversity within a Single Amerindian Tribe," Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA, 88: 8720-8724 (Oct. 1991).

Waters, Michael R. and Stafford, Thomas W., Jr., "redefining the Age of Clovis: Implications for the Peopling of the Americas," Science, 315: 1122-1126 (Feb. 23, 2007).

Weber, J.L. and Wong, C., "Mutation of Human Short Tandem Repeats," Human Molecular Genetics, 2(8): 1123-1128 (1993). (Abstract available online.)

Whiting, M.F., "DNA and the Book of Mormon: A Phylogenetic Perspective," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, 12(1): 24-35 (Nov. 2003).

Woodmorappe, J., "Upsetting Pet Theories: Surprising New Evidence that Molecular Clocks Can Run Very Fast,", June 5, 1999, as viewed Nov. 3, 2003.

Other Resources and Links To the index at the top

Main page on DNA and the Book of Mormon

Appendix 1: What the Book of Mormon Says

Appendix 2: DNA Evidence

Appendix 3: Further Scientific Issues

2014 Statement from the Church on DNA and the Book of Mormon.


A Brief Review of Murphy and Southerton's "Galileo Event"--Kevin Barney responds to an article by Thomas Murphy and Simon Southerton, "Genetic Research a 'Galileo Event' for Mormons," Anthropology News, Vol. 44, No. 2 (February 2003): 20, a publication of the American Anthropological Association. Kevin's response is at

"Simon Says, But That Doesn't Make It So" - Blake Ostler's insightful response to Simon Southerton, published in Sunstone Magazine. The link is to a PDF document in which Ostler's response begins at page 4. Interestingly, Ostler shows that Southerton actually agrees with the primary response of LDS scientists on the DNA issue: the introduction of a small group of people into a populated hemisphere 2600 years ago is unlikely to have left a DNA fingerprint that we can readily detect today. The problem is that Southerton isn't attacking what the Book of Mormon actually says, but a popular way of interpreting of the Book of Mormon. He also provides valulable insights on the issue of intermarriage with local natives.

"'Great Surprise'--Native Americans Have West Eurasian Origins" from National Geographic's Daily News, Nov. 20, 2013. In related posts at Mormanity and The Nauvoo Times, I explain why Mormons should not get overly excited about this tentative report. However, it does represent an important surprise that weakens some of the attacks made against the Book of Mormon. There is simply no basis to claim that there is no genetic evidence linking Native Americans and the Middle East.

DNA and the Book of Mormon--Cooper Johnson's excellent article at

General questions about alleged problems in the Book of Mormon

My Book of Mormon Evidences Page

Intro to the Book of Mormon

Introduction to the LDS Church

FARMS Reviews of Books, originally known as Review of Books on the Book of Mormon -- these publications, now archived at (search for items or use the drop-down box to select specific volumes), offer some of the best resources for intellectually refuting the arguments of many popular anti-Mormon publications. Also see the FARMS news item from 2000, "Genetics Indicates That Polynesians Were Connected to Ancient America."

Genetic Ancestral Testing Cannot Deliver On Its Promise, Study Warns - good reminder from Science Daily.

American Journal of Human Genetics--great source of research involving human genetics and ancestry.

My LDS Links

DNA Mutation Rates & Evolution--an outstanding and carefully documented article on DNA mutation rates and the problem of using DNA as a molecular clock, written by Dr. Sean Pitman, Aug. 2003.

John Sorensen, "The Problematic Role of DNA Testing in Unraveling Human History," Journal of Book of Mormon Studies, Vol. 9, No. 2 (2000): 66-74. This article discusses the limitations and benefits of DNA analysis, urging caution before leaping to errant conclusions based on early work with new methods.

"How African Are You? What Genealogical Testing Can't Tell You. - article at by John Hawks reminding us of the limitations of DNA testing.

Genetic Markers Are Not a Valid Test of Native Identity by Brett Lee Shelton, J.D. and Jonathan Marks, Ph.D. (URL: This essay points out the serious limitations of DNA testing in identifying tribal identity. I would suggest that some of the same factors that limit DNA tests to determine one's status as a Native American would also limit DNA tests in determining whether someone is Jewish or not. And it also points out that 5% of Native Americans believed to not have non-native DNA fall outside the major haplotypes (e.g., mtDNA haplotypes A, B, C, D, and X).

New evidence from the Baja peninsula - an article from about an important source of ancient Americans other than northern Asia - a fact that has been entirely missed in the supposedly "Asia only" DNA studies.

DNA and the Book of Mormon by David Stewart, M.D. - a new resource with excellent information on this complex topic.

Scientific Evidence for Pre-Columbian Transoceanic Voyages by John Sorenson and Carl Johannessen, Sino-Platonic Papers (April 2004). A serious review of detailed scientific evidence showing clues from flora and fauna pointing to "a considerable number of transoceanic voyages in both directions across both major oceans were completed between the 7th millennium BC and the European age of discovery."

Tempest in a Tea Pot: DNA Studies and the Book of Mormon - Brant Gardner's article at discusses of some of Tom Murphy's errors in interpreting scientific data.

A Brief History of the Limited Geographic View of the Book of Mormon by John Tvedtnes.

Joseph Smith and John Lloyd Stephens by Ted Dee Stoddard, a terrific article which shows the impact that a Mesoamerican explorer had on Joseph Smith's understanding of the Book of Mormon and its geography

Away from the Heartland: Joseph Smith, John Lloyd Stephens, and a Mesoamerican Setting for the Book of Mormon - post on my blog, Mormanity.

"Shalom and Hey, Y'all! Jewish-American Indian Chiefs in the Old Sout" - Word document from Donald N. Panther-Yates, Appalachian Quarterly 7/2 (June 2002) 80-89. Also see Donald's website,

Russell Anderson's Response Page--responds to many attacks of anti-Mormon critics.

SHIELDS--dealing with LDS historical and intellectual issues, including good answers to some common anti-Mormon questions.

FairMormon--The Foundation for Apologetic Information and Research, dedicated to providing an intelligent defense of the truth. Many serious and well written papers can be accessed at their site.

Mike Ash's Mormon Fortress--a rich site loaded with great material.

Pre-Columbian chickens in the Americas? The related peer-reviewed scientific article is also available online. Also see my related a post at Mormanity. While there is strong evidence for significant ancient contact between Polynesia and the Americas, DNA studies of Native Americans do not (yet) show evidence of such contact.

A Social History of the Early Nephites by Brant Gardner, available at

The Nephi Project--strong evidence for the authenticity of the Book of Mormon from the Arabian Peninsula, documented in videos.

Stone Age Columbus--An interesting BBC report about the possibility of ancient Europeans travelling by boat to the Americas in the Stone Age. Suggests that the origins of the Americas may be more diverse than conventional thinking would allow.

LDS FAQ: Questions about Science and Mormon Doctrine - a 2004 essay by Jeff Lindsay that deals with general issues of science and Mormonism, as well as specifics such as evolution, the Flood, etc.

The Waters of the Flood by Hugh Ross, Ph.D. Dr. Ross, a faithful non-LDS Christian and a scientist, points out that scriptural language about the flood covering "all the earth" need not refer to the entire globe, and argues for a scope limited to Mesopotamia. While LDS writers and leaders have traditionally taken scriptural language about the flood at a purely literal level, a limited flood paradigm is much more easily reconciled with modern science.

DNA-related articles in the November 2003 issue of The Journal of Book of Mormon Studies:

These and several more recent articles are available in a 2008 Maxwell Institute publication, The Book of Mormon and DNA Research: Essays from The FARMS Review and the Journal of Book of Mormon Studies.

Finally, don't overlook the most basic resource on this topic, The Book of Mormon: Another Testament of Jesus Christ. It is available online at, or you can order a free Book of Mormon at or just call 1-877-537-0003. After withstanding more than 170 years of hostile attacks, it is truer than ever, and vitally relevant for our day. Yes, the Book of Mormon is an authentic ancient record, a true book, and the word of God. But don't take my word for it: study it yourself, ponder it, apply any tests you like, and seek guidance from God to know for yourself if it is true.

Curator: Jeff Lindsay Contact:
Last Updated: Dec. 2, 2013
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